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Lesson 9 - Anatomical Terms 2

Student Performance Objectives
1. Define each of the following sections with relation to the human body in the anatomical 
position: longitudinal, transverse, sagittal, mid-sagittal, frontal, and mid-frontal.
2. Define the following body cavities and list the major organs found in each: dorsal, cranial, 
spinal, ventral, thoracic, pleural, pericardial, abdominal, pelvic, oral, orbital, and nasal.
3. Define each of the following membranes indicating their anatomical position: parietal
pleura, visceral pleura, pericardial sac, epicardium, parietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum,
mesentery, greater omentum, and lesser omentum.

Lesson Outline
A. Planes and Sections of the Body
    1. Longitudinal cuts - cuts made parallel to the object's long axis.
        a. Sagittal and mid-sagittal - cuts parallel to the long axis that divide the body
            or object into right and left parts (or right and left halves for mid-sagittal).
        b. Frontal and mid-frontal - cuts perpendicular to the long axis that divide the
            body or object into front and back parts.
    2. Transverse cuts (cross sections) - cuts made perpendicular to the object's long axis.
B. Application to the whole human body
C. Cavities of the body 
    1. Dorsal cavity
        a. Cranial cavity - cavity containing the brain.
        b. Spinal cavity - cavity containing the spinal cord.
    2. Ventral cavity
        a. Diaphragm as a landmark - separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
        b. Thoracic cavity
            1. Right and left pleural cavities - contain the right and left lungs.
            2. Pericardial cavity - contains the heart.
        c. Abdomino-pelvic cavity
            1. Abdominal cavity - contains the abdominal viscera including the 
                liver, stomach, small intestine, spleen, and omenta.
            2. Pelvic cavity - contains many organs including the ovaries, urinary 
                bladder, and rectum.
            3. Retroperitoneal position - a structure located posterior to the 
                peritoneum - includes the kidneys, pancreas and abdominal aorta.
    3. Miscellaneous cavities
        a. Oral or buccal cavity - the mouth.
        b. Orbital cavities - contain the eyeballs.
        c. Nasal cavities - contain the nasal epithelium.
    4. Membranes associated with the cavities
        a. Thoracic cavity - Pleurae
            1. Parietal pleura - slippery, membranous covering of the surface of the 
                thoracic cavity's walls.
            2. Visceral pleura - is the outer, membranous, slippery covering of the 
                lung surface.
        b. Pericardial cavity
            1. Pericardial sac - encloses the heart.
            2. Epicardium - is the heart's tightly adherent, slippery surface membrane.
        c. Abdominal cavity - Peritoneum
            1. Parietal peritoneum - slippery, membranous covering of the walls of 
                the abdominal cavity.
            2. Visceral peritoneum - is the slippery surface of the abdominal organs.
            3. Mesentery - the portion of the peritoneum that suspends the small 
                intestine in place.
            4. Greater omentum - portion of the peritoneum that hangs over the
                abdominal viscera, being firmly attached to the inferior border of the 
            5. Lesser omentum - also know as the ligamentum hepatogastricum - a connective tissue that
                binds the liver and stomach together.

Biomedical Terminology:

Abdominal cavity
Buccal cavity
Cranial cavity 
Cross section 
Dorsal cavity
Greater omentum
Lesser omentum
Nasal cavity
Oral cavity
Orbital cavity
Parietal peritoneum
Parietal pleurae
Pericardial cavity
Pericardial sac
Pleural cavity
Spinal cavity
Thoracic cavity
Ventral cavity
Visceral peritoneum
Visceral pleurae