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Skip Navigation LinksKCC Home > Academic Departments > Biological Sciences > 11New > Webpages > Unit 4, Lesson 2

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Anatomy and Physiology I
Unit 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and PhysiologyExpand Unit 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
Unit 2: The Cell and It’s EnvironmentExpand Unit 2: The Cell and It’s Environment
Unit 3: Cellular ChemistryExpand Unit 3: Cellular Chemistry
Unit 4: Biomolecules, Cell Architecture and Cellular Molecular FunctionExpand Unit 4: Biomolecules, Cell  Architecture and Cellular Molecular Function
Unit 5: Tissues, Membranes and GlandsExpand Unit 5: Tissues, Membranes and Glands
Unit 6: Integumentary SystemExpand Unit 6: Integumentary System
Unit 7: Skeletal System
Unit 8: Muscular System
Unit 9: Nervous System Introductory Concepts
Unit 10: The Central Nervous System - The Spinal Cord
Unit 11: The Central Nervous System - The Brain
Unit 12: The Autonomic Nervous System and Smooth Muscle

Lesson 2 - Complex Carbohydrates and Demonstration

Student Performance Objectives
1. List and define 2 examples of complex carbohydrates.
2. Describe 2 locations in the body where complex carbohydrates are important.
3. Describe an experiment to demonstrate the breakdown of starch to maltose by saliva.

Lesson Outline
A. Complex carbohydrates
    1. Glycoproteins: combinations of carbohydrate and protein. E.g., mucus
    2. Glycolipids: combinations of carbohydrate and lipid.
    3. The glycocalyx located at the surface of cells is a combination of glycoproteins
        and glycolipids and acts as a surface recognition region: immune system
        determines "self from nonself" at this area.
    4. Proteoglycans: mostly carbohydrate and some protein complexed together to
        form the gel that helps to hold cells and tissues together and helps to form the
        synovial fluid that lubricates the joints. Discuss the thixotropic nature of
        synovial fluid (i.e., multiple-viscosity liquid).
B. DEMONSTRATION (or Student Activity): The various simple tests for the major
    types of macromolecules are performed. Reducing sugars like glucose or maltose are
    tested using Clinitest tablets or Fehling's solution with observation of the color change
    (blue to greenish to brick red) after the exergonic reaction. Starch is tested using
    Lugol's iodine and observation of the blue-black color of the starch-iodine complex.
    The slippery nature of saliva is noted, compared with water, based on the content of
    the glycoprotein, mucus.










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