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Anatomy and Physiology I
Unit 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and PhysiologyExpand Unit 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
Unit 2: The Cell and It’s EnvironmentExpand Unit 2: The Cell and It’s Environment
Unit 3: Cellular ChemistryExpand Unit 3: Cellular Chemistry
Unit 4: Biomolecules, Cell Architecture and Cellular Molecular FunctionExpand Unit 4: Biomolecules, Cell  Architecture and Cellular Molecular Function
Unit 5: Tissues, Membranes and GlandsExpand Unit 5: Tissues, Membranes and Glands
Unit 6: Integumentary SystemExpand Unit 6: Integumentary System
Unit 7: Skeletal System
Unit 8: Muscular System
Unit 9: Nervous System Introductory Concepts
Unit 10: The Central Nervous System - The Spinal Cord
Unit 11: The Central Nervous System - The Brain
Unit 12: The Autonomic Nervous System and Smooth Muscle

Lesson 9 - Anatomical Terms 2

Student Performance Objectives
1. Define each of the following sections with relation to the human body in the anatomical
position: longitudinal, transverse, sagittal, mid-sagittal, frontal, and mid-frontal.
2. Define the following body cavities and list the major organs found in each: dorsal, cranial,
spinal, ventral, thoracic, pleural, pericardial, abdominal, pelvic, oral, orbital, and nasal.
3. Define each of the following membranes indicating their anatomical position: parietal
pleura, visceral pleura, pericardial sac, epicardium, parietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum,
mesentery, greater omentum, and lesser omentum.

Lesson Outline
A. Planes and Sections of the Body
    1. Longitudinal cuts - cuts made parallel to the object's long axis.
        a. Sagittal and mid-sagittal - cuts parallel to the long axis that divide the body
            or object into right and left parts (or right and left halves for mid-sagittal).
        b. Frontal and mid-frontal - cuts perpendicular to the long axis that divide the
            body or object into front and back parts.
    2. Transverse cuts (cross sections) - cuts made perpendicular to the object's long axis.
B. Application to the whole human body
C. Cavities of the body
    1. Dorsal cavity
        a. Cranial cavity - cavity containing the brain.
        b. Spinal cavity - cavity containing the spinal cord.
    2. Ventral cavity
        a. Diaphragm as a landmark - separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
        b. Thoracic cavity
            1. Right and left pleural cavities - contain the right and left lungs.
            2. Pericardial cavity - contains the heart.
        c. Abdomino-pelvic cavity
            1. Abdominal cavity - contains the abdominal viscera including the
                liver, stomach, small intestine, spleen, and omenta.
            2. Pelvic cavity - contains many organs including the ovaries, urinary
                bladder, and rectum.
            3. Retroperitoneal position - a structure located posterior to the
                peritoneum - includes the kidneys, pancreas and abdominal aorta.
    3. Miscellaneous cavities
        a. Oral or buccal cavity - the mouth.
        b. Orbital cavities - contain the eyeballs.
        c. Nasal cavities - contain the nasal epithelium.
    4. Membranes associated with the cavities
        a. Thoracic cavity - Pleurae
            1. Parietal pleura - slippery, membranous covering of the surface of the
                thoracic cavity's walls.
            2. Visceral pleura - is the outer, membranous, slippery covering of the
                lung surface.
        b. Pericardial cavity
            1. Pericardial sac - encloses the heart.
            2. Epicardium - is the heart's tightly adherent, slippery surface membrane.
        c. Abdominal cavity - Peritoneum
            1. Parietal peritoneum - slippery, membranous covering of the walls of
                the abdominal cavity.
            2. Visceral peritoneum - is the slippery surface of the abdominal organs.
            3. Mesentery - the portion of the peritoneum that suspends the small
                intestine in place.
            4. Greater omentum - portion of the peritoneum that hangs over the
                abdominal viscera, being firmly attached to the inferior border of the
            5. Lesser omentum - also know as the ligamentum hepatogastricum - a connective tissue that
                binds the liver and stomach together.

Biomedical Terminology:

Abdominal cavity
Buccal cavity
Cranial cavity
Cross section
Dorsal cavity
Greater omentum
Lesser omentum
Nasal cavity
Oral cavity
Orbital cavity
Parietal peritoneum
Parietal pleurae
Pericardial cavity
Pericardial sac
Pleural cavity
Spinal cavity
Thoracic cavity

Ventral cavity
Visceral peritoneum
Visceral pleurae

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