Lesson 9 - Anatomical Terms 2
Student Performance Objectives1. Define each of the following sections with relation to the human body in the anatomical position: longitudinal, transverse, sagittal, mid-sagittal, frontal, and mid-frontal.2. Define the following body cavities and list the major organs found in each: dorsal, cranial, spinal, ventral, thoracic, pleural, pericardial, abdominal, pelvic, oral, orbital, and nasal.3. Define each of the following membranes indicating their anatomical position: parietalpleura, visceral pleura, pericardial sac, epicardium, parietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum,mesentery, greater omentum, and lesser omentum.
Lesson OutlineA. Planes and Sections of the Body 1. Longitudinal cuts - cuts made parallel to the object's long axis. a. Sagittal and mid-sagittal - cuts parallel to the long axis that divide the body or object into right and left parts (or right and left halves for mid-sagittal). b. Frontal and mid-frontal - cuts perpendicular to the long axis that divide the body or object into front and back parts. 2. Transverse cuts (cross sections) - cuts made perpendicular to the object's long axis.B. Application to the whole human bodyC. Cavities of the body 1. Dorsal cavity a. Cranial cavity - cavity containing the brain. b. Spinal cavity - cavity containing the spinal cord. 2. Ventral cavity a. Diaphragm as a landmark - separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. b. Thoracic cavity 1. Right and left pleural cavities - contain the right and left lungs. 2. Pericardial cavity - contains the heart. c. Abdomino-pelvic cavity 1. Abdominal cavity - contains the abdominal viscera including the liver, stomach, small intestine, spleen, and omenta. 2. Pelvic cavity - contains many organs including the ovaries, urinary bladder, and rectum. 3. Retroperitoneal position - a structure located posterior to the peritoneum - includes the kidneys, pancreas and abdominal aorta. 3. Miscellaneous cavities a. Oral or buccal cavity - the mouth. b. Orbital cavities - contain the eyeballs. c. Nasal cavities - contain the nasal epithelium. 4. Membranes associated with the cavities a. Thoracic cavity - Pleurae 1. Parietal pleura - slippery, membranous covering of the surface of the thoracic cavity's walls. 2. Visceral pleura - is the outer, membranous, slippery covering of the lung surface. b. Pericardial cavity 1. Pericardial sac - encloses the heart. 2. Epicardium - is the heart's tightly adherent, slippery surface membrane. c. Abdominal cavity - Peritoneum 1. Parietal peritoneum - slippery, membranous covering of the walls of the abdominal cavity. 2. Visceral peritoneum - is the slippery surface of the abdominal organs. 3. Mesentery - the portion of the peritoneum that suspends the small intestine in place. 4. Greater omentum - portion of the peritoneum that hangs over the abdominal viscera, being firmly attached to the inferior border of the stomach. 5. Lesser omentum - also know as the ligamentum hepatogastricum - a connective tissue that binds the liver and stomach together.
Abdominal cavityBuccal cavityCranial cavity Cross section Diaphragm Dorsal cavityEpicardium FrontalGreater omentumLesser omentumLongitudinalMesentery Mid-frontal Mid-sagittalNasal cavityOral cavityOrbital cavityParietal peritoneumParietal pleuraePericardial cavityPericardial sacPleural cavityRetroperitoneal Sagittal Spinal cavityThoracic cavityTransverse Ventral cavityVisceral peritoneumVisceral pleurae