KINGSBOROUGH COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Of The City University of New York
Department Of Biological Sciences
BIO 50 – GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
SPRING 2003 Professor L. Brancaccio Taras
Course Description: Bio 50, General Microbiology, is a one semester, 4 credit class with a lecture and laboratory (3 hours each). The prerequisites for this course are one year of General Biology (Bio 13-14) and one semester of General Chemistry (Chm 11). The diverse structure and activities of microbes in a wide number of environs will be examined. Throughout the course, aspects of microbes beyond their ability to cause disease will be studied. These include the use of microbes in food production, antibiotic production, and bioremediation. Laboratory experiments will be conducted to support the concepts studied in the lecture portion of the course, the textbook readings, and other readings. Basic microbiological techniques such as staining, aseptic transfer, and pure culture techniques will be conducted. More advanced laboratories designed to demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of microbiology will include collection of marine water and sediment samples for cultivation of algae and the isolation of antibiotic-producing microbes, and studies of various microbial relationships using plants.
1. Demonstrate an appreciation for the diverse microbial world with regard to the structure and function of microbes.
2. Perform basic microbiological techniques to stain, cultivate, and identify microbes.
3. Demonstrate the positive and negative effects microbes have on society resulting in historically significant events.
4. Identify commensal, mutualistic, and antagonistic relationships microbes develop with other organisms.
5. Analyze the contributions microbes make to soil and aquatic environments by their roles in food webs and nutrient cycling.
6. Apply the interdisciplinary nature of microbiology to the fields of genetics, ecology, food production, and waste management.
TEXTBOOK: Microbiology: Essentials and Applications
Larry McKane and Judy Kandel, 2nd ed. (1996) McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York
LAB MANUAL: Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology
Loretta Brancaccio Taras and Joseph N. Muzio, 1st ed.(2002) Whittier Publications,
Inc., New York
OTHER REQUIRMENTS: A knee-length laboratory coat
WEEK 1: INTRODUCTION
Significance of studying the field of microbiology
Survey of microbes studied: bacteria, fungi, algae, protists, and viruses
Function of microbes in the environment and in basic research
What would the world be like without microbes?
History of microbiology: From van Leewenhoek to the present
Text readings: Chapter 1 p. 2-25; Chapter 2 p. 27-45
WEEK 2: BACTERIAL STRUCTURES AND SHAPES
Bacterial morphology (size, shapes and arrangements)
Bacterial structures (cell membrane, cell wall, glycocalyx, cytoplasm, nucleoid, cytoplasmic
inclusions, flagella, pili, and endospores)
Text readings: Chapter 4 p. 66-72; 74-96
WEEK 2: BACTERIAL GROWTH
Bacterial growth curve
Requirements for growth
Phototrophs, chemotrophs, autotrophs, and heterotrophs
Factors affecting microbial growth
Populations counts and determination of microbial numbers
Text readings: Chapter 5 p. 97-125
WEEK 3: METABOLISM
Review of anabolism, catabolism, ATP, biomolecules, and enzymes
Text readings: Chapter 6 p. 126-149
Aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, types of fermentation, photosynthesis in
eukaryotes and cyanobacteria
Text readings: Chapter 7 p. 150-177
WEEK 4: GENETICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
& Review of transcription and translation
WEEK 5: Posttranslational processing in prokaryotes: inteins and exteins
Regulation of gene expression: induction, repression, operons, and attenuation
Genetic transfer in bacteria: transformation, transduction, and conjugation
Text readings: Chapter 8 p. 178-214
Gene cloning in bacteria
Transferring genes to animal cells: gene replacement, antisense technology, and transgenic
Text readings: Chapter 9 p. 215-236
WEEK 6: FUNGI
Structures of fungi
Types of spores
Classification of fungi
Growth of fungi
Ecology of fungi
Association of fungi (mutualistic and parasitic)
Text readings: Chapter 11 p. 225-279
WEEK 7: PROTISTS
Structure of protists
Nutrition, metabolism and reproduction
Classification of protists
Classification and ecology of algae
Text readings: Chapter 12 p. 280-304
WEEK 8: VIRUSES
Viroids and prions
Text readings: Chapter 13 p. 305-332
WEEK 9: MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS
Text readings: Chapter 14 p. 333-346
WEEK 10: MICROBES IN THE ENVIRONMENT
& Food webs
WEEK 11: Nutrient cycling
Text readings: Chapter 26 p. 704-734
WEEK 11: FOOD AND INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY
& Food production
WEEK 12: Production of industrial and pharmaceutical products
Production of natural resources
Trends in microbiology and the future of microbiology
Text readings: Chapter 27 p. 735-769
Sequence of Lab Experiments
Lab Manual: Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology by L. Brancaccio Taras and J. N. Muzio
WEEK# EXERCISE TITLE EXERCISE # (page)
1 Check In/ Safety rules
Bright-field microscope (review parts and 1 (p. 3)
Smear preparation and simple staining 2 (p. 12)
Negative Staining 3 (p. 20)
Culture medium & aseptic transfer 10 (p. 57)
2 Gram staining 4 (p. 25)
Acid-fast staining 5 (p. 31)
Capsule staining 6 (p. 36)
Endospore staining 7 (p. 41)
Pure culture techniques 11 (p. 63)
3 Bacterial population counts 12 (p. 70)
Selective & differential media 14 (p. 80)
Factors affecting microbial growth
4 Water and sediment sampling 27 (p. 181)
5 Isolation of antibiotic producers- Part I 29 (p. 195)
Winogradsky column 28 (p. 189)
Determination of bacterial properties-
Carbohydrate fermentation Parts I-V 23 (p. 127)
Determination of bacterial properties -
Protein metabolism Parts I-III 24 (p. 138)
6 Determination of bacterial properties -
Protein metabolism Part IV- VI 24 (p. 138)
Determination of bacterial properties –
Exoenzymes and endoenzymes Parts I-VII 25 (p. 150)
7 Determination of bacterial properties-
Identifying an unknown bacterium- Parts I & II 26 (p. 164)
Analysis of the effectiveness of antiseptics and disinfectants 19 (p. 105)
Kirby-Bauer method for analyzing the
effectiveness of antibiotics 20 (p. 109)
Analysis of the effectiveness of ultraviolet light 21 (p. 115)
WEEK# EXERCISE TITLE EXERCISE # (page)
8 Examination of molds 32 (p. 223)
Examination of algae 33 (p. 231)
9 Bioremediation 31 (p. 209)
Protozoa and slime molds 34 (p. 239)
10 Viruses 35 (p. 249)
Water analysis 30 (p. 205)
Commensalism 37 (p. 265)
Mutualism- Parts I, II, and III 38 (p. 269)
Antagonism- Parts I and II 39 (p. 275)
11 Bacterial genetic transfer-transformation
Food microbiology- Bacterial counts of food samples 42 (p. 301)
Use of chemical preservatives to increase the shelf
life of apple cider 43 (p. 305)
Analysis of the effectiveness of hand washing 22 (p. 119)
12 Analysis of results from week 11
The objectives listed can be used as guidelines for studying each topic considered in the course.
Introduction and History of Microbiology
1. Describe in several sentences the significance of the contributions of the following scientists to
the field of microbiology: (a) van Leewenhoek; (b) Pasteur; (c) Jenner;
(d) Semmelweis; (e) Lister; (f)Koch; (g) Ehrlich; and (h) Fleming.
2. Define spontaneous generation.
3. In a brief statement, describe the series of experiments disproving spontaneous generation.
4. List 3 three ramifications resulting from the removal of all microbes from the earth.
5. List 5 beneficial activities of microbes in the environment.
6. List 3 beneficial activities of microbes that benefit humans.
7. List 3 detrimental activities of microbes.
8. Describe biogeochemical cycling. Include the classes of organisms involved and their activity in this process.
9. Define germ theory.
10. Describe Robert Koch’s experiment proving germ theory.
11. List the 4 criteria of Koch’s postulates.
12. List 3 identifying characteristics used to distinguish the following organisms studied in microbiology: (a) bacteria; (b) fungi; (c) protozoa; (d) algae; and (e) viruses.
13. List 2 activities carried out by each of the microbes listed in objective #12.
Bacterial Structures and Shapes
1. Define the term morphology.
2. Draw and name the 3 most common bacterial shapes and their arrangements.
3. Define the term pleomorphic.
4. Describe the chemical composition (structure) and function of the following bacterial organelles: (a)cell wall; (b) cell membrane; (c) glycocalyx; (d)endospores; (e) flagella;
(f) pili; (g) inclusion bodies; (h)plasmid; and (i) nucleoid.
5. State the chemical differences in the cell walls of Gram-positives, Gram-negatives, and archaeobacteria.
6. Name the components of the outer membrane of a Gram-negative.
7. Explain the action of penicillin and lysozyme in relation to bacterial cell walls.
8. Draw and name the 4 bacterial flagellar arrangements.
6. Explain the difference between sporulation and germination.
7. Draw and name the 3 endospore locations within a cell.
1. Describe in a series of steps the process of binary fission.
2. Draw and label the four phases of a typical bacterial growth curve.
3. Describe the phases of a typical bacterial growth curve.
4. Define the term generation time.
5. Explain the function of a chemostat in maintaining a continuous culture.
4. Define the term fastidious microbes
5. Define each of the following terms with regard to their energy and carbon source:
(a) photoautotroph;(b) photoheterotroph; (c) chemoautotroph; and
6. Describe how each of the following physical factors affect microbial growth: (a) temperature; (b) pH; (c) molecular oxygen; (d) osmostic pressure.
7. Define the term culture medium.
8. Explain the difference between a chemically defined and a complex culture medium.
9. Explain the difference between a selective and a differential culture medium.
10. Explain the difference between a direct and indirect method for measuring microbial growth.
11. Name 1 direct method for measuring microbial growth and describe how it is performed.
12. List 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of the method mentioned in objective #11.
13. Name 2 indirect methods for measuring microbial growth and describe how each is performed.
14. List 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of the methods mentioned in objective #13.
15. Define the term bioassay and explain how bioassays are used to measure microbial growth.
1. Define the following terms: (a) metabolism; (b) catabolism; and (c) anabolism.
2. Define what an enzyme is and state how enzymes increase the rate of a biochemical reaction.
3. Name the 4 macromolecules found in all cells.
4. Write 4 chemical reactions demonstrate the anabolism of the 4 macromolecules mentioned in
5. Write 4 chemical reactions demonstrate the catabolism of the 4 macromolecules mentioned in
6. Define the following terms: (a) fermentation; (b) aerobic respiration; and (c) anaerobic respiration.
7. List the end products of (a) glycolysis; (b) Krebs cycle; (c) electron transport/oxidative
8. Explain how carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are metabolized to generate ATP.
9. Explain the significance of microbial metabolism in the identification of microorganisms.
10. Write a chemical reaction for each type of fermentation mentioned and name a microbe that carries out each type of fermentation: (a) homolactic fermentation; (b) mixed acid fermentation; and (c) alcoholic fermentation
11. List three organisms and their fermentation products used in food production.
12. Define the term photosynthesis and name a microbe of carrying out the reactions of photosynthesis.
13. State 1 difference between photosynthesis of plants versus photosynthesis of microbes.
14. Define the term chemoautotrophy (also known as chemolithotrophy).
1. Define the following terms: (a) gene; (b) genotype; (c) phenotype; and (d) mutation.
2. Distinguish between the processes of DNA replication, transcription and translation.
3. Explain RNA processing in prokaryotes.
4. Explain RNA processing in eukaryotes.
5. Define the term operon and describe the different genes and regulatory regions found in an operon.
6. Explain the difference between an inducible and a repressible operon with regard to the type of
enzymatic pathway they are associated with, the effector, and the repressor protein.
7. Explain the process of catabolite repression using E.coli growing in broth with lactose and glucose.
8. Explain how each of the following causes mutations: (a)base analogues, (b) ultraviolet light and
(c) transposable genetic elements.
9. Distinguish between transformation, transduction and conjugation.
10. Define the term competency.
11. Explain the difference between specialized and generalized transduction.
12. Explain the difference between a F+ cell, Hfr cell , and F’ cell.
13. Explain how genetic transfer increases the ability of bacterial cells to survive under adverse conditions such as exposure to antibiotics or heavy metals.
14. Explain the purpose of the Ames test and how it is performed.
15. Briefly describe the 6 steps required to transfer a human gene to a bacterial cell for cloning purposes.
16. List 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of using human cloning products.
16. Define the following terms: (a) cDNA; (b) DNA library; (c) nucleic acid probe;
17. Name the bacterium commonly used to transfer genes to plants and explain the steps involved in creating recombinant plants.
18. Define the following gene therapy techniques: (a) gene replacement and
(b) antisense technology.
19. Define the following terms: transgenic animals and “piggyback” vaccines.
20. Explain the purpose of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure.
1. Define the term hyphae and explain the difference between septate and nonseptate hyphae.
2. Explain the difference between vegetative hyphae and aerial hyphae.
3. Name and describe the structure of the 4 types of sexual fungal spores.
4. Name and describe the structure of the 5 types of asexual fungal spores.
5. Name and describe the 5 taxonomic categories of fungi based on spore type (sexual and asexual) and morphology of hyphae.
6. Name 2 poison-producing fungi and the effects of these poisons.
7. State the conditions for optimal fungal growth with regard to temeperature, pH, and glucose
8. List 1 example of the saprophytic activity of fungi in the environment.
9. Describe the role of fungi in the following mutualistic relationships: (a) lichen; (b) mycorrhizae
10. List 2 examples to demonstrate the parasitic nature of fungi with humans and plants.
1. Explain the difference between protozoa and algae.
2. Distinguish between polymorphism and pleomorphism.
3. Name and define the 2 common life cycle forms of protozoa.
4. Name and describe the major mode of nutrient acquisition demonstrated by protozoa.
5. Explain the function of the contractile vacuole in protozoa.
6. Draw diagrams to demonstrate longitudinal binary fission, transverse binary fission, and multiple fission.
7. Name and describe the 4 groups of protozoa.
8. Name 2 pathogenic protozoa and the diseases they are responsible for.
9. Name 3 properties used to classify algae.
10. Briefly explain the importance of algae in a marine food pyramid.
11. Describe how an algal bloom develops and its detrimental effects on a body of water.
12. Draw a diagram to describe the life cycle of a plasmodial (acellular) slime mold.
13. Draw a diagram to describe the life cycle of a cellular slime mold.
1. Explain why viruses are considered obligate intracellular parasites.
2. Define the following parts of a virus: (a) capsid; (b) capsomere; (c) nucleocapsid; (d) envelope; and (e) spikes.
3. List 5 properties used to classify viruses.
4. Name and describe the 5 steps involved for a virus to enter a host cell.
5. Explain each of the following viral genetic material replication strategies: (a) double-stranded DNA; (b) single stranded DNA; (c) positive strand RNA; (d) negative strand RNA; and (e) retroviruses.
6. Draw a graph of a one-step growth curve, label the x and y axis, and the areas of the graph representing addition of virus to host cells, viral eclipse, and maturation.
7. Define the following terms: (a) oncogenic virus; (b) viroid; and (c) prion.
1. Define the following types of symbiosis: (a) commensalisms; (b) mutalism; and (c) antagonism.
2. Distinguish parasitism from predation.
3. Explain how a lichen is an example of mutualism
4. Define the term endosymbiosis and give an example.
5. Define the term biofilm and give an example.
6. Name 2 examples of mutualism between: (a) microbes and plants; and (b) microbes and animals.
7. Distinguish between antibiotics and bacteriocins.
Microbes in the Environment
1. Explain the energy and nutrient flow through a food web from producers to consumers.
2. Explain the carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus are cycled.
3. Explain the following cycles including the microbes involved in the various reactions:
(a) carbon cycle; nitrogen cycle; (c) phosphorus cycle; and (d) sulfur cycle.
4. List 3 functions of microbes in soil.
5. List 3 functions of microbes in an aquatic environment.
6. Explain the role of microbes in the following activities: (a) corrosion; (b) eutrophication; and
7. Explain, in a series of steps, water treatment and sewage treatment and disposal.
Food and Industrial Microbiology
1. List 2 food products resulting from microbial fermentation and the name of the microbe.
2. List 5 microbial enzymes used in food production.
3. Explain 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of genetically engineered food products.
4. Distinguish between a primary and secondary metabolite and give an example of each.
5. Give 2 examples of how microbes have been used to alter crops.
6. Describe the role of microbes in fuel production and mining.