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Lesson 4 Early Earth and the Origin of Life

Self Study Test

I. Origins of the Universe

Big bang theory

II. Origins of life on Earth

A. Spontaneous generation

1. Francesco Redi experiment

2. Mid 1800's - disproved by Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall

B. Preiotic evolution

1. The primordial environment

2. The possible origin of organic molecules

a. Chemical evolution

-4 requirements

-4 hypothetical in chemical evolution

b. 1953 - The Stanley Miller experiment

3. The possible origins of cell-like strutures

Microsperes and membranes

III. The History of Life

First cells:

In the fossils: 3.1 to 3.5 billion years

Estimation: 3.8 billion years

A. Age of microbes - 3.5 billion years ago

1. The earliest living cells - anaerobic prokaryotes

2. Photosynthetic bacteria

3. The evolution of aerobes and oxygen-rich environment (2.7 BYA)

4. Development of aerobic metabolism

B. The rise of eukaryotes - about 1.2 BYA

1. Endosymbiotic hypothesis

2. The origin of the nucleus

C. Multicellular eukaryotes: about 1.2 BYA

D. Animal diversity: 540 - 520 MYA

E. The transition to land (500 MYA)

1. Plants and Fungi

2. Animals 

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