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Skip Navigation LinksKCC Home > Academic Departments > Biological Sciences > 11New > Webpages > Unit 4, Lesson 15

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Anatomy and Physiology I
Unit 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and PhysiologyExpand Unit 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
Unit 2: The Cell and It’s EnvironmentExpand Unit 2: The Cell and It’s Environment
Unit 3: Cellular ChemistryExpand Unit 3: Cellular Chemistry
Unit 4: Biomolecules, Cell Architecture and Cellular Molecular FunctionExpand Unit 4: Biomolecules, Cell  Architecture and Cellular Molecular Function
Unit 5: Tissues, Membranes and GlandsExpand Unit 5: Tissues, Membranes and Glands
Unit 6: Integumentary SystemExpand Unit 6: Integumentary System
Unit 7: Skeletal System
Unit 8: Muscular System
Unit 9: Nervous System Introductory Concepts
Unit 10: The Central Nervous System - The Spinal Cord
Unit 11: The Central Nervous System - The Brain
Unit 12: The Autonomic Nervous System and Smooth Muscle


Lesson 15 - Taking a Deeper Look at Cellular Nucleic Acids and their Functions

Student Performance Objectives

1. Explain DNA replication.
2. Compare DNA replication with DNA's transcription of a message to m-RNA.
3. Describe translation utilizing the following terms: ribosome, m-RNA, t-RNA's, amino acids,
    codons and anticodons.
4. Define mutation and describe the effect of a deletion or substitution mutation on the m-RNA
    reading frame.

Lesson Outline
A. DNA is a most remarkable molecule with the ability to make exact copies of itself, a process called
     replication and clearly important for the continuation of life from generation to generation. Read about
     this at the following website: 
     
1. DNA replication is semiconservative. To see what this means go to
    
 http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/BioInfo/REP/DR.Semi.html Also see
    
 http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAreplication.html
     2. DNA codes for the synthesis of proteins. To get an overview of this process, go to
    
     http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAtranscription.html for a more detailed view.
B. The DNA molecule, in the cell's nucleus, sends a messenger molecule to the ribosomes,
     located in the cell's cytoplasm, to begin the process of protein synthesis. The messenger
     molecule formed is called messenger RNA. Its formation is called transcription. S
ee an
     animation of the process at 
     http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp12/1202001.html
C. The messenger RNA molecule, interacting with the ribosomes can take part in the synthesis
     of proteins, a process called translation.

D. Animations of the process of translation may be found at
   http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/translation/movie.htm
and
   
http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAtranslation.html which is very detailed but revealing.
F. The occurrence of a mutation changes the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule. This
     changes the sequences of bases on a messenger RNA molecule transcribed from the mutated
     DNA molecule. The resultant protein synthesized from the translation of this m-RNA
     molecule will have an altered sequence of amino acids. This protein might function normally,
     might function suboptimally, or might not function at all. Read more about mutations at:
    
 http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/mutations/
    1. Deletion mutations - a base is removed from the sequence which alters the reading
        frame.
    2. Substitution mutation- one base is substituted for another. The reading frame is not
        altered but the codon containing the substituted base is not different and may code for
        a different amino acid than the original.


       
















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