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Skip Navigation LinksKCC Home > Academic Departments > Biological Sciences > 11New > Webpages > Unit 4, Lesson 15

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Anatomy and Physiology I
Unit 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and PhysiologyExpand Unit 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
Unit 2: The Cell and It’s EnvironmentExpand Unit 2: The Cell and It’s Environment
Unit 3: Cellular ChemistryExpand Unit 3: Cellular Chemistry
Unit 4: Biomolecules, Cell Architecture and Cellular Molecular FunctionExpand Unit 4: Biomolecules, Cell  Architecture and Cellular Molecular Function
Unit 5: Tissues, Membranes and GlandsExpand Unit 5: Tissues, Membranes and Glands
Unit 6: Integumentary SystemExpand Unit 6: Integumentary System
Unit 7: Skeletal System
Unit 8: Muscular System
Unit 9: Nervous System Introductory Concepts
Unit 10: The Central Nervous System - The Spinal Cord
Unit 11: The Central Nervous System - The Brain
Unit 12: The Autonomic Nervous System and Smooth Muscle


Lesson 15 - Taking a Deeper Look at Cellular Nucleic Acids and their Functions

Student Performance Objectives

1. Explain DNA replication.
2. Compare DNA replication with DNA's transcription of a message to m-RNA.
3. Describe translation utilizing the following terms: ribosome, m-RNA, t-RNA's, amino acids,
    codons and anticodons.
4. Define mutation and describe the effect of a deletion or substitution mutation on the m-RNA
    reading frame.

Lesson Outline
A. DNA is a most remarkable molecule with the ability to make exact copies of itself, a process called
     replication and clearly important for the continuation of life from generation to generation. Read about
     this at the following website: 
    
http://www.kbcc.cuny.edu/academicdepartments/bio/Bio33/Pages/Transcription.aspx
     1. DNA replication is semiconservative. To see what this means go to
    
 http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/BioInfo/REP/DR.Semi.html Also see
    
 http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAreplication.html
     2. DNA codes for the synthesis of proteins. To get an overview of this process, go to
     
http://www.kbcc.cuny.edu/academicdepartments/bio/Bio33/Pages/dna2.aspx and also
     
http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAtranscription.html for a more detailed view.
B. The DNA molecule, in the cell's nucleus, sends a messenger molecule to the ribosomes,
     located in the cell's cytoplasm, to begin the process of protein synthesis. The messenger
     molecule formed is called messenger RNA. Its formation is called transcription. Read about
     the transcription process at
     
http://www.kbcc.cuny.edu/academicdepartments/Bio/Bio33/Pages/TranscriptionPart2.aspx and see an
     animation of the process at 
     http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp12/1202001.html
C. The messenger RNA molecule, interacting with the ribosomes can take part in the synthesis
     of proteins, a process called translation. Read about translation at
     
http://www.kbcc.cuny.edu/academicdepartments/Bio/Bio33/Pages/TranslationPart1.aspx
D. The details of the translation process are discussed at
    
 http://www.kbcc.cuny.edu/academicdepartments/Bio/Bio33/Pages/TranslationPart2.aspx
E. Animations of the process of translation may be found at
   http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/translation/movie.htm
and
   
http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAtranslation.html which is very detailed but revealing.
F. The occurrence of a mutation changes the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule. This
     changes the sequences of bases on a messenger RNA molecule transcribed from the mutated
     DNA molecule. The resultant protein synthesized from the translation of this m-RNA
     molecule will have an altered sequence of amino acids. This protein might function normally,
     might function suboptimally, or might not function at all. Read more about mutations at:
    
 http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/mutations/
    1. Deletion mutations - a base is removed from the sequence which alters the reading
        frame.
    2. Substitution mutation- one base is substituted for another. The reading frame is not
        altered but the codon containing the substituted base is not different and may code for
        a different amino acid than the original.


       
















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