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-Circulation Problem Page-

1. Choose one of the problems described below.
2. Prepare your solution as a word document.
3. Send it to your professor as an e-mail attachment. You will receive an e-mail response.

Problem #1:An elderly man develops leg cramps and fatigue when attempting to walk moderate distances. Tests performed indicate severe atherosclerotic occlusion at the junction of the femoral and deep femoral arteries. Utilize the Internet or other sources to answer the following questions:

1. Define atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. Define peripheral vascular disease. Define cardiovascular disease.
2. Name the 4 most common and significant sites for development of atherosclerosis.
3. Explain the human disease conditions that result from atherosclerotic plaque development at each of these 4 sites. How important are these diseases as causes of death and debility in humans?
4. What is atherosclerotic plaque made of? How does it get there?
5. List 10 risk factors for development of atherosclerosis.
6. Define angiography, angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft.
7. What effect does nitroglycerine have on the coronary circulation? What is the effect of digitalis on cardiac output?
8. Cite one research study that supports, and one research study that does not support, the value of aspirin in the reduction of mortality from heart attack.
9. Cite one research study that supports, and one research study that does not support, the value of low saturated fat, elevated polyunsaturated fat diets in the reduction of mortality from heart attack.
10. What is the Mediterranean diet and how does it differ from the low saturated fat-elevated polyunsaturated fat diet? What is the evidence that this diet reduces mortality from cardiovascular disease?
11. What are the treatment options available for the elderly man in this problem?

Problem #2: An individual with cirrhosis of the liver due to 25 years of heavy alcohol consumption develops bleeding esophageal varices. Why? Utilize the Internet or other sources to discuss the following issues as you answer the question:

1. What is cirrhosis of the liver and how is alcohol related to this condition?
2. What are some of the main symptoms of this condition other than esophageal varicies?
3. Define esophageal varices.
4. What happens to the blood circulation that results in development of esophageal varices?
5. Is this situation correctable? How?

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