Ph.D., New York University (Degree in Physical Education with Concentration in Sports Management)
Doctoral Dissertation Title: “The Relationship of Hardiness, Sense of Coherence, Sports Participation, and Gender to Perceived Stress and Psychological Symptoms Among College Students,” 1997.
M.A., University of Maryland (Degree in Sports Psychology)
Thesis title: “Self-Perception of Male and Female High School Varsity Athletes in Social and Competitive Situations,” 1978.
B.S., University of Maryland (Degree in Physical Education), 1973.